The Philosophical Review

For the love of wisdom

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The Philosophical Review was created to share academic writing in any discpline of philosophy. From essays and articles to blog posts and opinion pieces, you'll find great resources, without a price tag.

Academics without a price tag

We value the current standard of academic journals. They provide a wealth of knowledge from experts within a given field. Furthermore, we understand that those subscription costs serve to reward those who write about their research. However, those same costs bar lower income individuals from accessing that wealth of knowledge. We believe that this significantly outweighs any benefit provided by subscription based journals. As such, you will not find any type of costs associated with accessing our content.

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Martin Luther Martin Luther was born in 1483 to a copper miner in Saxony, Germany. (167) During his later years while intending to study law, was struck by a thunderstorm at sea. The storm was significant enough for Luther to pledge his life to St. Anne. Following the storm, Luther kept to his pledge and transitioned from studying law to becoming a monk. However, Luther eventually identified wrong…

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Edmund Gettier There is not much to be said about modern epistemology before 1963. For that was the year that Edmund Gettier published his paper Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?, which challenged the traditional analysis of knowledge. Gettier presented two cases in which a true belief is inferred from a justified false belief. He observed that, intuitively, such beliefs cannot be knowledge; it…

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Background The regulation of drug use in the United States has ramifications which, although they are largely unexpected, they are nonetheless disastrous for millions of people. Drug use and drug regulations have long histories within the United States. Drug use before federal regulations was typically limited to home remedies for pain, or recreational use. According to David Musto, in his article…

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Philosophy of language examines language as a median between humans and the natural world. Subjects pertaining to philosophy of language include the study of composition, semantics and logic, reference, and much more. This essay, however, is primarily concerned with meaning. An important note for this section is that the uses of the term ‘language’ are not limited to spoken or written word…

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Introduction New York, New York is often considered to be a polluted metropolis filled with smog and traffic. Nonetheless, NYC turned itself into one of the leading cities in urban sustainability. In 2007, New York City Mayor, Michael Bloomberg launched the ‘PlaNYC’ initiative. The goal: to drive down the city’s carbon dioxide emissions and to establish sustainability. As a part of PlaNYC, Mayor…

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Emergentism As you begin reading this, consider momentarily how you initially perceived the screen in front of you. For the sake of the following argument, I will assume that at no point did you initially perceive the screen as a conglomeration of light and dark areas, arranged to convey no particular meaning. Presumably, you perceived it as a singular thing, an extension of the author’s ideas on…

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The human dependence upon sensory perception deceives the individual into assuming that spatial separation from an object, necessarily renders it as distinct from the individual mind. This article details the history and general theories of emergentism and the extended mind. British Emergentism The theory of emergentism has roots dating as far back to John Stuart Mill. Mill kick-started…

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In March of 1986, Michael Hardwick brought forward a suit in the Federal District Court “challenging the constitutionality of the statute insofar as it criminalized consensual sodomy” (Bowers V. Hardwick, 478 U.S. 186z). Preceding the court case, Hardwick was charged with violating Georgia’s law against sodomy when a police officer observed Mr. Hardwick conducting sexual activity with another…

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