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Philosophy of language examines language as a median between humans and the natural world. Subjects pertaining to philosophy of language include the study of composition, semantics and logic, reference, and much more. This essay, however, is primarily concerned with meaning. An important note for this section is that the uses of the term ‘language’ are not limited to spoken or written word. Instead, references to language should be considered as the means by which organisms gather and present information.


Emergentism As you begin reading this, consider momentarily how you initially perceived the screen in front of you. For the sake of the following argument, I will assume that at no point did you initially perceive the screen as a conglomeration of light and dark areas, arranged to convey no particular meaning. Presumably, you perceived it as a singular thing, an extension of the author’s ideas on the topic of emergentism.


Introduction New York, New York is often considered to be a polluted metropolis filled with smog and traffic. Nonetheless, NYC turned itself into one of the leading cities in urban sustainability. In 2007, New York City Mayor, Michael Bloomberg launched the ‘PlaNYC’ initiative. The goal: to drive down the city’s carbon dioxide emissions and to establish sustainability. As a part of PlaNYC, Mayor Bloomberg ordered an inventory of NYC’s emissions.


The human dependence upon sensory perception deceives the individual into assuming that spatial separation from an object, necessarily renders it as distinct from the individual mind. This article details the history and general theories of emergentism and the extended mind. British Emergentism The theory of emergentism has roots dating as far back to John Stuart Mill. Mill kick-started emergentism with his work in System of Logic. He argued that heteropathic emergence is the result of physiological interactions.


I shall argue that the traditional analysis of knowledge is false in that the conditions stated therein do not constitute a sufficient condition for the truth of the proposition that S knows that P. –Edmund Gettier, Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? Edmund Gettier There is not much to be said about modern epistemology before 1963. For that was the year that Edmund Gettier published his paper Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?



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Accepted papers must be adapted to the journal’s house style. The final document should be a Word file (.doc or .docx). The text should be structured consistently. The name and affiliation of the contributor(s) should appear at the top, along with an abstract.

The Philosophical Review follows MLA, or Chicago with the following exceptions:

Citations with link: Authors who want their in-text citations rendered as hyperlinks to the list of references must, if submitting a .doc/.docx file, color all in-text citations so that they can be identified during production. (Authors submitting .tex files can ignore this step.) Blue, or any color not used for another purpose elsewhere in the text, will do. We strongly encourage authors to make their in-text citations linkable, but it is not required.

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Examples (MLA):

Adams, Robert Merrihew. “Motive Utilitarianism.” The Journal of Philosophy 73.14 (1976): 467-481.

Berg, Dustin. “A Theory of Artificial Classification: The Development of Naturality from Artificiality.” The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2018.

Lewis, David. “On The Plurality of Worlds.” Oxford 14 (1986): 43.

—.Counterfactuals. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

Examples (Chicago):

Adams, Robert Merrihew. “Motive utilitarianism.” The Journal of Philosophy 73, no. 14 (1976): 467-481.

Berg, Dustin. “A Theory of Artificial Classification: The Development of Naturality from Artificiality.” The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, (2018).

Lewis, David. “On the Plurality of Worlds.” Oxford 14 (1986): 43.

Counterfactuals. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

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